In addition, she believes that this way of watching film is never alternated so that the men are in fact the ones who are being viewed in this manner. , The early work of Marjorie Rosen and Molly Haskell on the representation of women in film was part of a movement to depict women more realistically, both in documentaries and narrative cinema. Feminist film theory criticizes classical cinema for its stereotyped representation of women. Feminist Film Theory 101: Carol J. Clover’s “The Final Girl” Skip to entry content As it’s Halloween this month, it only seems apporiate for this month’s “Feminist Film Theory 101” to focus on Carol J.Clover’s “ Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film .” and the “Final Girl”. She has written, directed and produced a short titled In Bloom and has a credit in the BAFTA nominated film The Selfish Giant. Feminist Film Studies is a readable, yet comprehensive textbook for introductory classes in feminist film theory and criticism. […] By analyzing the statements that constitute the making of a field of knowledge, we can see how the speakers and listeners, writers and readers come to know who they … ":28 Mulvey argues that the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan is the key to understanding how film creates such a space for female sexual objectification and exploitation through the combination of the patriarchal order of society, and 'looking' in itself as a pleasurable act of scopophilia, as "the cinema satisfies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking.":31. While Lola Young argues that filmmakers of all races fail to break away from the use to tired stereotypes when depicting black women. Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Her theories are influenced by the likes of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan (by using their ideologies as “political weapons”) whilst also including psychoanalysis and feminism in her works. Although it often gets reduced to key theoretical—primarily psychoanalytic—analyses of spectatorship from the 1970s and 1980s, it has always been and continues to be a dynamic area with many objects of focus and diverse methodological practices. The importance of this theme for 1970s feminist film theory is thus acknowledged, while a majority of the articles exemplify the subsequent move towards reception studies dealing with specifically female spectatorship. This unoriginal and predictable character archetype did not stop at the first few films either, as Bay continued to cast limited women in his films, and all the women included in the franchise are deemed stereotypically attractive, as their careers in acting are secondary to their modelling careers. bell hooks argues for example that Mainstream feminist film criticism in no way acknowledges black female spectatorship. Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. Stanford, CA: Stanford … The inclusion of feminist essays by philosophers in two anthologies on film in the mid‐1990s, together … Considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to what they argue is the "male gaze" that predominates classical Hollywood filmmaking. Join a community of like-minded readers who are passionate about cinema - get access to our private members Network, give back to independent filmmakers, and more. Why does this conglomerate deem it necessary to sexualise their characters? In the USA, the theory was based on sociological theory, with a focus on the function of female characters within the narratives/genres of films. For example, in the first movie, Megan Fox plays Sam Witwicky’s (Shia LaBeouf) love interest, and who can forget that memorable scene where Fox is in a tight, low-cut top bent over a car engine? “Introduction: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms.”, Johnston, Claire. Feminism, a belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women, has roots in the earliest eras of human civilization. In part, this can be viewed in light of a more general tendency within film studies to position history and theory as oppositional. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. Mulvey calls for an eradication of female sexual objectivity, aligning herself with second-wave feminism. Other theorists who wrote about feminist film theory and race include bell hooks and Michele Wallace. It does not even consider the possibility that women can … Learn more about feminism. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. As the first major developments in feminist film theory happened in Britain … The work cited …  Jane Gaines's Women's Film Pioneer Project (WFPP), a database of women who worked in the silent-era film industry, has been cited as a major achievement in recognizing pioneering women in the field of silent and non-silent film by scholars such as Rachel Schaff. The men/princes in the movies are depicted as heroic and brave, and the princesses are trapped in ivory towers waiting to be saved. They believe that conscious calculation cannot fully explain the production and reproduction of patriarchy. Feminist film theory Last updated December 30, 2019. They know films have the male gaze and that the male gaze is bad. Jasmine, the Disney princess in Aladdin for example, features a small, tight crop top revealing her chest and stomach, and her waist is almost the same width as her neck, therefore enforcing unrealistic goals for what little girls want to look and aspire to be like. In order to remedy gender inequality, women and feminists of the 1960s and 1970s fought for … Learn feminist film theory with free interactive flashcards. 5 – 1980: New Wave, Cinema City, Jackie Chan & John Woo, The History of Hong Kong Action Cinema Pt. , Other key influences come from Metz's essay The Imaginary Signifier, "Identification, Mirror," where he argues that viewing film is only possible through scopophilia (pleasure from looking, related to voyeurism), which is best exemplified in silent film. During its heyday in the 1970s and 1980s a poststructuralist perspective domineered the approach to cinema, claiming that cinema is more than just a reflection of social relations in that it actively constructs meanings of … A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. Not only is the Male Gaze theory relevant to cinema, but it also correlates with every-day life. Whilst the Male Gaze can be applied to many obvious films such as Transformers, there are some films that people might not even consider as sexist and misogynistic, such as the movies that feature everyone’s beloved Disney princesses: Beauty and the Beast,Aladdin, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella et cetera. The relationship of feminist film theory to feminist media and cultural studies is outlined, as is the relationship between developments in feminist film theory and feminist film making. Feminist film theoryFeminist view film to be a cultural practiserepresenting myths about women and femininity aswell as men and masculinity. Weinstein Feminist Theory 1494 Words | 6 Pages. Psychoanalytic feminists attempt to explain power relations between men and women by reformulating Sigmund Freud's theories of human emotions, childhood development, and the workings of the subconscious and unconscious. Sign in or become a patron today! For example, model Rosie Huntington-Whiteley plays the role of Sam’s girlfriend in Transformers: Dark of the Moon(2011) and she has a variety of scenes where she walks around with minimal clothing on. British feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey, is famous for her work and is credited with coining the term ‘male gaze’. Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain, best known for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. It is reasonable to begin this part by giving a few definitions of … Mulvey is predominantly known for her theory regarding sexual objectification on women in the media, more commonly known as The Male Gaze” theory. Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. Rachael is also a poet, published short story author and is currently working with Rollem Productions on a new concept for a television show. Feminist Film Theory: A Reader edited by Sue Thornham. Jane Gaines's essay "White Privilege and Looking Relations: Race and Gender in Feminist Film Theory" examined the erasure of black women in cinema by white male filmmakers. Firstly, the design of the princesses is partially created to satisfy the male eye. Or what about Nicola Peltz in Transformers: Age of Extinction(2014), who is also objectified with minimal clothing and worms-eye camera angles, letting audiences see a lot of skin, indefinitely more than a male actor would reveal in this franchise. Mulvey has shone a light on the old-fashioned and repetitive style of cinema we see every day, and her ideologies have helped create a more modern and truthful version of cinema as we now have more realistic portrayals of women than ever before. LIFE IS EASY (LIE) Season One: Queer Body Swap Comedy Explores Real Issues, Silence & Oppression: A Cheryl Dunye Retrospective.  In "The Master's Dollhouse: Rear Window," Tania Modleski argues that Hitchcock's film, Rear Window, is an example of the power of male gazer and the position of the female as a prisoner of the "master's dollhouse".. What if the young girls watching these films don’t feel as thin or as flawless as these characters? , B. Ruby Rich argues that feminist film theory should shift to look at films in a broader sense. So then, feminist film theory becomes a reason to hate and disavow movies if you’re a feminist. The female protagonists are only happy once they have fallen in love with a man, suggesting to the demographic of Disney’s audience, children and in particular young girls, that they will only be happy when they have fallen in love. Mulvey's contribution, however, initiated the intersection of film theory, psychoanalysis and feminism. People: Carol Clover - Barbara Creed - Vera Dika - Mary Ann Doane - Paula Graham - Molly Haskell - Laura Mulvey - Patricia MacCormack - Tania Modleski - Claire … The 1990s brought the digital revolution. 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